The Role of Anthropic, Ecological, and Social Factors in Sleeping Site Choice by Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

Dr. Drh. I Nengah Wandia, M.Si. , I NENGAH WANDIA (2014) The Role of Anthropic, Ecological, and Social Factors in Sleeping Site Choice by Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology, 76. ISSN 1098-2345

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When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade?offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human?modi?ed environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the in?uence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long?tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human?modi?ed zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre?sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not signi?cantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re?used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re?used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human?modi?ed zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long?tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor in?uencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results re?ect the strong in?uence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human?dominated landscapes. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1140–1150, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key words: sleeping site; human proximity; human food; predation avoidance; Bali Barat National Park

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences > School of Education
Depositing User: Mr. Repository Admin
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2016 21:58
Last Modified: 21 Jun 2016 05:58

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